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Security Audit Definitions


End of Life (EOL) for Windows workstations refers to the point in time when Microsoft ceases to provide official support, updates, or patches for a specific version of its Windows operating system. After this point, the respective OS no longer receives security updates, bug fixes, or other improvements, regardless of the existence of known vulnerabilities or issues.

Risks Associated with Not Upgrading to a Supported Operating System:

  • Security Vulnerabilities: Perhaps the most critical risk, unsupported systems won’t receive security patches for newly discovered threats. This makes them prime targets for cyber-attacks, including viruses, malware, ransomware, and other malicious software.
  • Non-Compliance: Many industries have regulatory requirements for maintaining the security and integrity of data. Using EOL operating systems can lead to non-compliance, which might result in hefty fines and legal consequences.
  • Software Incompatibility: As software developers often design their applications with the latest operating systems in mind, older, unsupported systems might not run newer software efficiently, if at all.
  • Hardware Limitations: Modern hardware components might not be compatible with older operating systems. This could result in a loss of functionality or the inability to upgrade hardware components without also upgrading the OS.
  • Limited Vendor Support: Most third-party software vendors cease support for EOL operating systems, meaning any issues or incompatibilities arising will likely remain unresolved.
  • Operational Inefficiencies: Older systems may not have the speed, capabilities, or features of newer ones. This can lead to decreased productivity and inefficiencies in the workplace.
  • Increased Total Cost of Ownership (TCO): While it might seem cost-effective to stick with an older system in the short term, the long-term costs of managing and maintaining these systems, coupled with potential security breaches or data loss, often exceed the cost of upgrading.
  • Reputation Damage: In the event of a security breach due to vulnerabilities in an EOL operating system, organizations not only face the direct consequences of the breach but also potential reputation damage. Customers and partners might lose trust in businesses that don’t prioritize their IT security.

In conclusion, while there might be initial costs and challenges associated with upgrading to a supported operating system, the risks of remaining on an End of Life system far outweigh these short-term considerations. Regularly updating and maintaining IT infrastructure is a proactive step in ensuring the security, efficiency, and longevity of an organization’s technological investments.

End of Life (EOL) for Windows servers refers to the point at which Microsoft discontinues official support for a particular version of its Windows Server operating system. After reaching this milestone, the OS version in question no longer receives security updates, patches, or any other form of official enhancements, leaving any existing vulnerabilities or issues unaddressed.

Risks Associated with Not Upgrading to a Supported Server Operating System:

  1. Security Vulnerabilities: Servers often host critical business data and applications. When they run on EOL operating systems, they become vulnerable to cyber threats, including advanced persistent threats, malware, and other sophisticated attacks, given the absence of security patches for new vulnerabilities.

  2. Data Breaches: An outdated server OS can become the weak link, allowing cybercriminals to access confidential business data. This not only jeopardizes sensitive information but also places the organization at risk of legal ramifications.

  3. Service Interruptions: EOL server operating systems might face compatibility issues with newer software or protocols. This can lead to service interruptions, which can be detrimental to business operations.

  4. Decreased Performance: Newer server OS versions typically offer optimized performance, scalability, and better resource management. Sticking with an outdated version might limit a server’s performance and its ability to handle increasing workloads.

  5. Compliance Issues: Industries like finance, healthcare, and others have stringent data protection regulations. Running servers on EOL operating systems can lead to non-compliance, resulting in potential legal action and fines.

  6. Loss of Vendor Support: Beyond Microsoft, other software vendors might discontinue support or updates for applications running on EOL server operating systems.

  7. Operational Inefficiencies: EOL server systems might not support newer, more efficient operational technologies and tools, thereby hindering an organization’s ability to innovate and remain competitive.

  8. Higher Operational Costs: Maintaining and troubleshooting issues on EOL server operating systems can be more costly in the long run compared to the investment required for an upgrade. This includes potential costs associated with data breaches or system failures.

  9. Reputation Risk: A data breach or significant downtime resulting from vulnerabilities in an EOL server operating system can severely damage an organization’s reputation, leading to a loss of customer trust and potential business.

In summation, the decision to keep servers running on EOL operating systems can pose significant risks to an organization. Regular updates and timely migrations to supported server operating systems are essential practices that not only ensure optimum performance but also safeguard critical business data and services.

Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) for Microsoft 365 is a security mechanism that requires users to provide two or more verification methods to confirm their identity before gaining access to an account or system. These verification methods are a combination of something the user knows (like a password), something the user has (like a smartphone or security token), and something the user is (like a fingerprint or facial recognition). Microsoft 365’s MFA implementation enhances security by ensuring that even if malicious actors obtain a user’s credentials, they still cannot access the account without the additional verification factor(s).

Risks Associated with Not Having a Modern Version of MFA Enabled for a Microsoft Tenant:

  1. Increased Likelihood of Unauthorized Access: Without MFA, attackers with stolen credentials can easily gain unauthorized access to sensitive data and systems within the Microsoft 365 tenant.

  2. Phishing Vulnerabilities: Without MFA, users are more susceptible to phishing attacks. Even if users mistakenly give away their credentials, MFA serves as a secondary defense line.

  3. Loss of Sensitive Data: Once inside the Microsoft 365 environment, unauthorized actors can access, exfiltrate, or manipulate sensitive organizational data, including emails, documents, and more.

  4. Account Compromise: Without MFA, compromised accounts can be used to carry out malicious activities, like sending phishing emails from legitimate accounts, spreading malware, or even performing financial fraud.

  5. Increased Incident Response Costs: Organizations without MFA often face higher costs related to identifying, responding to, and rectifying security breaches.

  6. Regulatory and Compliance Violations: Some regulations and standards mandate the use of MFA. Not employing it can result in non-compliance penalties and fines.

  7. Reputational Damage: Data breaches, especially those involving sensitive customer data, can tarnish an organization’s reputation, resulting in loss of customers and trust.

  8. Internal Threats: Disgruntled employees or those with ill intent might take advantage of the lack of MFA to access data they shouldn’t, potentially leading to data theft or sabotage.

  9. Reduced Business Continuity: Unauthorized access or malicious activity might disrupt essential services and operations, affecting business continuity.

  10. Increased Difficulty in Forensics: Determining the extent of a breach or unauthorized activity is more challenging when basic security measures like MFA are not in place.

In conclusion, enabling a modern version of MFA for Microsoft 365 is a fundamental step in strengthening an organization’s security posture. Not only does it protect against common threats like credential theft, but it also ensures that even sophisticated adversaries have a challenging time breaching organizational defenses.

Managed Detection & Response (MDR) Services is like having a team of security experts who constantly watch over your business’s computer systems. This team uses advanced tools to spot and handle any suspicious or harmful activities, ensuring that your business’s digital environment remains safe. It’s similar to having security guards for your digital space, ensuring everything runs smoothly and keeping out intruders.

Risks Associated with Not Having MDR Services Enabled:

  1. Unnoticed Threats: Without MDR, harmful actions or suspicious activities might go unnoticed, much like intruders wandering around unchecked in an unguarded building.

  2. Delayed Reaction: If something does go wrong, without MDR, there could be significant delays in realizing and addressing the issue, similar to how a leak in a house can cause more damage if not spotted early.

  3. Potential Losses: Just as an unguarded physical store is at risk of theft, without digital protection, a business is at risk of data theft or cyberattacks, which can lead to financial losses.

  4. Damaged Reputation: If customers find out that their data got compromised because a business wasn’t adequately protected, they might lose trust in that business and tell others about it.

  5. Operational Interruptions: Without proper monitoring and rapid response, a small technical issue or cyber threat can escalate, potentially halting business operations.

  6. Increased Costs: Addressing a digital issue after it has caused harm can be far more costly than preventing or handling it early on.

  7. Legal Issues: Some laws and regulations require businesses to ensure their digital data is protected. Not doing so might result in fines or legal complications.

In simpler terms, Managed Detection & Response Services is like having an expert security team constantly ensuring your business’s digital space is safe. Not having this service is like leaving the doors to your business open and unguarded, exposing you to various risks and potential losses.

Endpoint Detection & Response (EDR) is like having a security camera system installed inside each computer, tablet, or phone your business uses. These “cameras” keep an eye out for suspicious or harmful activities. If something unusual happens, like a virus trying to enter, the EDR system spots it and takes steps to handle the situation or alerts someone to take action. In short, it’s a safeguard for all your business’s digital devices.

Risks Associated with Not Having EDR Enabled:

  1. Unprotected Devices: Without EDR, individual devices like laptops or phones are like houses without alarm systems, making them easier targets for digital “break-ins.”

  2. Spread of Threats: One compromised device can act as a gateway for threats to spread to other devices, similar to how one sick person can spread a cold to others if not isolated.

  3. Data Loss or Theft: Just as an unlocked office might lead to stolen files, unprotected devices can lead to valuable data being accessed or taken by unauthorized individuals.

  4. Productivity Drops: If a device gets compromised and starts malfunctioning, it can hinder an employee’s ability to work, just like a broken machine in a factory can slow down production.

  5. Hidden Threats: Without the “security cameras” of EDR, harmful software can remain hidden in devices, causing damage silently over time.

  6. Costly Clean-up: Addressing and fixing issues after they’ve caused problems can be much more expensive than preventing them in the first place.

  7. Reputation Risks: If a security issue becomes public knowledge, customers might think twice before trusting a business with their data or transactions.

In simpler terms, Endpoint Detection & Response acts as a vigilant security system for every digital device in your business. Not having it is like leaving each device without its protective shield, making it and your business more vulnerable to a range of digital threats.

Cyber Liability Insurance is similar to having a safety net for your business in the digital world. If something goes wrong, like a cyberattack or data breach, this insurance helps cover the costs and losses related to the incident. It’s like having fire insurance for your shop; even if a mishap occurs, you’re not left to bear all the expenses on your own.

Risks Associated with Not Having Cyber Liability Insurance:

  1. Financial Strain: Just as a shop without fire insurance would struggle to rebuild after a blaze, a business without cyber insurance might face significant out-of-pocket expenses after a cyber incident.

  2. Operational Downtime: In the aftermath of a cyber event, operations might halt. Without insurance to assist with recovery, the downtime could be extended, similar to a factory taking longer to restart if it lacks insurance support after a mishap.

  3. Legal Complications: After a data breach, affected customers might take legal action. Without insurance, a business would shoulder all the legal fees and potential compensation payouts, akin to facing a lawsuit without any coverage.

  4. Reputation Damage: While insurance can’t prevent reputation damage, it can provide resources for crisis management and public relations efforts, helping the business navigate the fallout more effectively.

  5. Loss of Customers: Without the assurance that a business can quickly recover and compensate for any losses after a cyber incident, customers might hesitate to do business or share their data.

  6. Unanticipated Expenses: Just as unexpected costs can arise after a physical disaster, there might be unforeseen expenses after a cyber incident, such as hiring experts or implementing new security measures.

  7. Regulatory Fines: Some jurisdictions have regulations requiring businesses to protect customer data. In the event of a breach, regulatory bodies might impose fines, which would be harder to manage without insurance coverage.

In simpler terms, Cyber Liability Insurance offers a financial cushion for businesses if they encounter digital mishaps or threats. Going without it is like running a business without any safety net for unexpected calamities, leaving the business vulnerable to considerable financial and reputational risks.

On-demand Security Training, also known as E-training, is like offering your employees an always-accessible digital library of safety drills. Instead of gathering everyone in a room for a one-time seminar, employees can access, learn, and revisit crucial security lessons whenever and wherever they need. It’s akin to having a personal safety instructor available at the touch of a button.

Risks Associated with Not Offering On-demand Security Training:

  1. Uninformed Decisions: Without continuous training, employees might inadvertently make choices that jeopardize business security, much like someone unknowingly leaving a door unlocked after hours.

  2. Increased Vulnerabilities: In the absence of ongoing training, employees might be more susceptible to threats like phishing emails or suspicious downloads, similar to someone not recognizing a faulty alarm system.

  3. Inconsistent Training Levels: Without a standardized e-training platform, some team members might be better informed than others, leading to gaps in the company’s security posture.

  4. Delayed Responses: If employees aren’t regularly trained on how to respond to security threats, they might react slowly during a real incident, much like someone hesitating during a fire because they’ve never had a drill.

  5. Increased Incident Costs: The costs of addressing security breaches can rise significantly if employees aren’t educated on preventive measures and rapid response tactics.

  6. Reputation Damage: If a breach occurs due to an employee’s oversight, it might not only result in financial losses but also tarnish the company’s reputation.

  7. Regulatory Complications: Some industries require regular security training as part of compliance standards. Failure to offer it can lead to penalties or legal complications.

  8. Employee Frustration: Without proper training, employees might feel ill-equipped and anxious about handling digital tools and data, leading to decreased morale and productivity.

In simpler terms, On-demand Security Training provides businesses with a constant, accessible resource to keep their teams informed and vigilant in the digital landscape. Not incorporating it is like leaving your team without the necessary tools and knowledge to defend and protect the business from potential threats.

Third-party Microsoft 365 Backup is akin to having an external safety deposit box for your business’s valuable digital documents and data. Even though Microsoft 365 already offers some level of data storage and protection, this third-party backup ensures you have an extra, separate copy of your data. Imagine it as taking photocopies of important business contracts and keeping them in a separate, secure location, just in case the originals are lost or damaged.

Risks Associated with Not Using Third-party Microsoft 365 Backup:

  1. Single Point of Failure: Relying solely on Microsoft 365 for data backup is like keeping all your eggs in one basket. If something goes wrong with that one system, you risk losing everything.

  2. Data Loss: In cases of accidental deletions, malicious activity, or rare service glitches, not having a backup means valuable business data could be gone forever, similar to misplacing a one-of-a-kind document.

  3. Operational Delays: Recovery without a backup can be time-consuming. It’s like trying to recreate a lost business plan from memory instead of having a copy on hand.

  4. Increased Recovery Costs: If data is lost or compromised, the process of recovering or recreating it without a backup can be costly in terms of both time and resources.

  5. Regulatory Risks: Some industries have strict regulations about data preservation. Not having sufficient backup solutions could lead to non-compliance penalties.

  6. Reputation Damage: If clients or customers find out about data loss or compromised data due to inadequate backup practices, their trust in the business may wane.

  7. Business Continuity Threats: Significant data loss can disrupt regular business operations, potentially impacting revenue and client relationships.

  8. Loss of Intellectual Property: Unique business insights, strategies, or other proprietary data can be lost, setting back the company’s strategic position.

In simpler terms, using a third-party backup for Microsoft 365 ensures that businesses have an added layer of protection for their precious digital assets. Neglecting this extra safeguard is akin to skipping insurance on a valuable property, leaving the business more exposed to potential pitfalls and losses.

IT Systems Auditing is akin to having a dedicated detective for your business’s digital landscape. Using sophisticated tools, the process dives deep into the intricacies of your IT environment. It not only evaluates the health and security of your systems but also tracks changes, user activities, and access patterns. Imagine having a CCTV system that records activities and flags anything out of the ordinary, ensuring everything runs according to set standards.

Risks Associated with Not Conducting IT Systems Auditing:

  1. Undetected Changes: Without auditing tools that monitor changes, unauthorized or accidental modifications in the system might go unnoticed, akin to changes in a building’s layout going unchecked.

  2. Access Anomalies: Without the right tools, tracking who accessed what and when becomes challenging, similar to not knowing who entered a restricted area of a facility.

  3. Operational Blind Spots: Overlooking crucial system activities can lead to inefficiencies or vulnerabilities, just as missing CCTV footage might leave gaps in an investigation.

  4. Heightened Security Risks: Not being aware of unusual user behaviors or access patterns can increase susceptibility to breaches, much like a security system that doesn’t detect unusual movements.

  5. Delayed Incident Responses: Without real-time alerts or detailed logs, the time taken to detect and respond to an issue could increase, similar to a guard responding late because they weren’t alerted in time.

  6. Compliance Challenges: Many regulations demand detailed auditing of IT activities. Not having a robust auditing mechanism could jeopardize compliance and invite penalties.

  7. Loss of Data Integrity: Without tracking changes and accesses, data could be altered, deleted, or moved without authorization, compromising its reliability.

  8. Inadequate Forensics: In the aftermath of an incident, a lack of detailed logs can hinder investigations, much like trying to solve a mystery without any clues.

  9. Eroded Stakeholder Confidence: Clients, partners, and stakeholders expect businesses to maintain the utmost digital integrity. A lack of auditing could undermine this trust.

In simpler terms, IT Systems Auditing acts as the vigilant eyes and ears of a business’s digital domain. Forgoing this advanced surveillance is like neglecting a state-of-the-art security system, exposing the enterprise to threats and uncertainties.

Simulated Phishing Attacks are like fire drills for your business’s email system. Simulated attacks are controlled exercises that mimic real-life phishing attempts, intending to trick employees into revealing sensitive information. It’s akin to a team-building exercise where a ‘mock thief’ tries to infiltrate your company, testing everyone’s alertness and preparation.

Risks Associated with Not Conducting Simulated Phishing Attacks:

  1. Unprepared Employees: Without these simulations, employees might not recognize a real phishing attempt when it happens, much like a person who hasn’t practiced a fire drill might panic in a real fire.

  2. Increased Vulnerabilities: Without the experience of dealing with simulated attacks, employees could inadvertently expose the company to real threats, akin to leaving a door unlocked in a secure building.

  3. Data Breaches: If employees are tricked by a real phishing email, they might disclose sensitive information, leading to data breaches, just as someone might accidentally give the security codes to a burglar.

  4. Financial Losses: Successful phishing attacks can lead to financial theft or loss, such as unauthorized transfers or misuse of company credit cards.

  5. Loss of Trust: If customers or stakeholders learn about a successful phishing attack, they might lose trust in the business’s ability to protect their information.

  6. Regulatory Fines: In some cases, data breaches resulting from phishing attacks can lead to non-compliance with regulations, resulting in fines and penalties.

  7. Operational Disruptions: Depending on the severity, phishing attacks can cause significant disruptions to daily operations.

  8. Reputational Damage: Successful phishing attacks can tarnish a company’s image, leading to long-term reputational damage.

In simpler terms, Simulated Phishing Attacks act as a proactive measure to prepare your team for real-world digital threats. Neglecting these simulations is akin to not having regular safety drills, leaving your team more vulnerable to cyberattacks and their potential impacts.

SOC (Security Operations Center) and SIEM (Security Information and Event Management) services work together like a combination of a surveillance team and an intelligent security alarm for your business’s digital landscape. While SOC represents the team of cybersecurity experts constantly monitoring your network, SIEM is the technology they use to gather and analyze security data in real-time. Think of it as a 24/7 security command center that not only watches for threats but also understands and predicts them, much like a highly advanced security control room for a large facility.

Risks Associated with Not Using SOC/SIEM Services:

  1. Delayed Threat Detection: Without these services, recognizing and addressing threats in real-time becomes challenging, akin to spotting a thief in a large crowd without surveillance cameras.

  2. Inefficient Response: In the face of a cyberattack, the absence of SOC/SIEM means slower and potentially less effective response measures, similar to a delayed response to a security breach in a building.

  3. Overwhelming Data: Organizations generate massive amounts of security logs and data. Without SIEM’s analytical capabilities, making sense of this data can be overwhelming and crucial insights might be missed.

  4. Lack of Proactive Defense: SIEM tools can predict potential security threats based on patterns. Without this, the business loses a proactive edge in its defense strategy, much like a security team that only reacts to alarms without patrolling.

  5. Increased Vulnerability: Without the constant vigilance of a SOC, the business’s digital environment is more exposed to external and internal threats.

  6. Compliance Issues: Many industries require constant monitoring and analysis of security data for compliance. Not using SOC/SIEM services might lead to non-compliance penalties.

  7. Operational Disruptions: A successful cyberattack can disrupt regular business operations, potentially leading to financial losses.

  8. Reputation Damage: Customers and stakeholders trust businesses to protect their data. A breach or cyberattack can damage this trust.

  9. Higher Long-term Costs: While setting up SOC/SIEM services might have an initial cost, the financial implications of a significant breach or persistent minor attacks can be much higher in the long run.

In simpler terms, employing SOC/SIEM services is like equipping your business with both a highly-trained security team and the latest surveillance technology. Choosing to operate without this protective combo leaves the digital doors of your business more open to potential cyber intruders and the associated risks.

The Advanced Security Features in Microsoft 365 Business Premium and higher licensing tiers act like a multi-layered shield for your business’s digital activities. These features, part of the Microsoft ecosystem, offer enhanced protection against cyber threats, controlled access to sensitive data, and insightful analytics about potential vulnerabilities. Think of it as equipping your digital office space with state-of-the-art security systems, from advanced locks and biometric access to intelligent surveillance that proactively identifies potential threats.

Risks Associated with Not Utilizing Microsoft 365 Advanced Security Features:

  1. Increased Vulnerability to Threats: Without these enhanced features, your business might be more exposed to cyberattacks, akin to a valuable property being more susceptible without advanced security measures.

  2. Data Breaches: Without tools like Advanced Threat Protection and sensitive information protection, there’s a higher chance of sensitive business data being accessed, modified, or stolen by unauthorized parties.

  3. Loss of Control: Features like Conditional Access ensure that only the right people have access to the right data at the right time. Without these, controlling who accesses your business data becomes challenging.

  4. Inadequate Threat Insights: Tools like Threat Intelligence provide detailed insights into potential threats targeting your organization. Without this, it’s like operating in a potential danger zone without a map.

  5. Reduced Response Time: Advanced security features allow for quick identification and response to threats. Without them, detecting and mitigating threats might be slower, akin to responding to a security breach without a coordinated plan.

  6. Compliance Issues: For businesses in regulated industries, not using these features could lead to non-compliance with data protection standards, potentially resulting in penalties.

  7. Operational Disruptions: Cyberattacks or unauthorized data access can disrupt regular business operations, leading to potential revenue losses.

  8. Reputational Risks: Stakeholders and customers expect businesses to protect their shared data diligently. A security incident might lead to a loss of trust and reputation.

  9. Increased Recovery Costs: The aftermath of a cyberattack or data breach without advanced security measures can be costly, both in terms of financial implications and time.

In simpler terms, the Advanced Security Features of Microsoft 365 Business Premium and above are akin to upgrading your business’s digital fortress with top-of-the-line defense mechanisms. Operating without these enhanced protective measures is like leaving valuable assets in a vault with basic locks, increasing the risk of unauthorized access and potential losses.

Social Engineering is on the rise. WheelHouse IT conducts training with its employees to ensure they act cautiously when users are seeking change, but additional layers of security can only ensure that your business is protected from a cleverly voiced request. This system enables WheelHouse IT to verify the identify of an active employee via an app or text message when someone calls seeking support for your organization. By leveraging a secondary form of verification, you can be certain that changes to accounts are done on behalf of the authorized user.

Last Updated: August 2023

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